1829 – The use of English as the medium of instruction, and the training of English-speaking Indians as teachers as conceptualized by Lord Bentinck.
Hunter Commission (1882) – highlighted the need for teacher education for the first time.
Kothari Commission (also known as Secondary Education Commission) (1964-66) – Teacher training and teacher status were a major focus. It stated: “In order to make the professional preparation of teachers effective, teacher education must ‘be brought into the mainstream of the academic life of the Universities, on the one hand, and of the school life and educational development, on the other”. The commission also proposed increased pay scales for school teachers to be implemented in a phased programme over a period of five years.
NPE (1986) – Emphasized better training and qualifications of teachers. It also aimed to encourage scholarships, adult education, and recruiting more teachers from SCs.
The National Council for Teacher Education Act – NCTE, (1993) – Established with a view to achieving planned and coordinated development of the teacher education system throughout the country, the regulation and proper maintenance of norms and standards in the teacher education system and for matters connected therewith.
SSA – Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (2000) – Called for an increase in the number of teachers to meet the goal of universal education. It also focused on recruitment of female teachers to encourage girl child education.
Information and Communication Technology in Schools (2004) – The Centrally Sponsored Scheme “Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in School” was launched in December 2004. The Scheme currently is being implemented in both government and government aided secondary and higher schools. Support is provided for procurement of computers and peripherals, educational software, training of teachers, Internet connectivity etc.
National Curriculum Framework – NCF (2005) – Teachers were encouraged to adopt constructivist learning pedagogy. Teacher education was also a major emphasis – both in-service and pre-service.
Sixth Pay Commission (2006) – There have been six pay commissions in India owing to which the salaries of government teachers have improved gradually.
National Curriculum for Teacher Education – NCFTE (2009) as approved by the NCTE, a curriculum framework was devised subtitled: “Towards Preparing Professional and Humane Teacher”.
RTE – Right to Education Act (2009) – Corporal punishment made illegal; pupil-teacher ratio fixed; private tuition prohibited.
Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation – CCE (2010) – CBSE schools mandated to adopt CCE as a means of evaluation. The CCE method is claimed to bring enormous changes from the traditional chalk and talk method of teaching provided it is implemented accurately. The teacher will also play a major role. For example, they give remedial help; maintain a term-wise record and checklists, etc.
TET (2011) – TET was introduced by the Government of India in order to improve standards in teaching. The exam is based on the National Curriculum Framework.